Chapter 3

In the morning of the third day I arrived at Imam Sadeq’s house and asked permission to enter. When he permitted I sat in his presence.

Imam started, “thanks be to the God who elected us from among the humans and made us superior to them and made no one superior to us and shared his knowledge with us only and approved us with his patience. Anyone who denies us, hell is his place, and anyone who takes refuge in us, paradise is his residing place.

O Mofazzal, so far I have described for you the creation of humans and their different characteristics. I have also told you about the mysteries in the creation of animals.

Now I will tell you about the skies, the sun, moon, stars, heavens, night, day, cold, heat, wind, the four elements – earth, water, air, fire – and rain, stones, mountains, mines, plants, trees, and the lessons in them.

Notice the sky’s color and learn that God has set it blue because it is the best color for the eye because blue strengthens the eye. Doctors even believe, those whose sight has weakened, should look constantly at this color.”

And one of the professional doctors prescribed for someone with a weak sight to fill a blue bowl with water and look at it. Now think how God has set the sky’s color blue so that constant looking upon it would not harm the eye.

Now you see that things that scholars and doctors have learned after several experimentations, God had taken heed in its creation. So those who are seeking knowledge, by witnessing such wisdoms, start thinking.

The Creation of Sun

O Mofazzal think upon the sunrise and sunset and the creation of day and night. If the sun did not rise, all the worldly affairs would get out of order and people could not work for their sustenance and the world would always remain dark. Without light people would not enjoy the pleasures of life. The benefits of sunrise is even more obvious than the sunshine.

Now think about the sunset and its benefits. If the sun did not set people would not feel peace and solace. They could not rest; therefore the fatigue would not leave their bodies and their senses would weaken and the digestion system could not digest the eaten food and transfer it to the body parts.

So if there was only day, people would constantly work and their bodies weaken, because some people are so greedy in accumulating wealth that the only thing that could stop them would be the darkness of the night.

And if there were no night, the earth would get so heated by the sun that all the animals and plants would perish. Therefore, God the Almighty and the Wise has made the solar system in a way that sun rises part of day and sets another part. So He created light and darkness both to impose discipline and order on earth.

Think upon the short and long distance between the sun and the earth and how this difference has resulted in four seasons and all this shows God’s wisdom.

In winter the heat stays within the trees and plants so the main ingredient of fruits is formed within them. The air thickens, resulting in the formation of clouds and rain, and the bodies of animals gain strength. And in spring the ingredients that were formed within the trees sprout, and turn into flowers. In summer because of the extreme heat, fruits get ripe, and the excess and harmful humidity within the bodies of animals evaporates, and the earth’s humidity decreases and bodies get healthy. Nights get longer so the things that are better done at nights can be done then.

If I were going to tell you about all the benefits of the four seasons it would take too long.

Now think about the rotation of the sun and how the twelve months result from this; meaning Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, Pisces. When the rotation of the sun ends, and the four seasons end, the year ends and in this cycle grains and fruits ripen, and regrow next year. Don’t you see that the solar year starts with the month Aries, and the age of the creation of the world starts with the same month?

O Mofazzal think upon the manner in which the earth receives sunshine. If the location of the sun and earth would always remain the same; the mountains, walls, ceilings would prevent sunlight from reaching same parts of earth, but since He wanted His blessings for all His creations, He set the movement of the earth and the sun in a way that sun rises on the east and sets in the west. Whatever is located facing the west receives sunshine when the sun rises, and whatever faces the east receives sunlight when the sun sets. Therefore, no spot is left without sunshine. He has indeed been just towards all the plants, animals, and the rest of His creation. If the sun would divert from its routine for a year or less, and did not shine on earth, could the people survive?

The Creation of Moon

O Mofazzal think upon the moon and how people use it to measure their year and the lunar/Arabic year is known by it, but it is not compatible with the solar year, because it does not cover the four seasons and the growing of plants; therefore, the lunar years and months do not comply with solar month and years.

O Mofazzal, think about the moonlight at the dark night and how despite the benefits of the darkness of the night like resting and colder weather which is suitable for humans, animals, and plants, the moonlight prevents absolute darkness, so activities at night would not become totally impossible, and those people who work at nights, or due to the heat of the day or lack of time cannot work in daytime, would be able to work at night.

So God who plans day and night and has created light and darkness, has set the moonlight as an aid for people to be able to use it when needed or to be an aid for the travelers at night.

The Creation of Stars

O Mofazzal think about the stars and the difference in their movement and how some are fixed and some are moving in groups, and some are moving sporadically. These stars have two kinds of movements, they move in groups from east to west, and also each star moves from west to east.

Like an ant that on a grindstone moves to the left, but when you turn the grindstone to the right, the ant would have two movements: one of its own will that moves forward, and the other out of its own will that is caused by the grindstone.

So ask those who believe these stars move naturally and without the wisdom of a creator: “if you are right in your belief, why isn’t everything static and fixed?”

Therefore, the movement of these stars is based upon the wisdom and precise measurement of an all-knowing and powerful God, and quite opposite to what the diverted minds assume to be natural and random.

If somebody asks, “why some stars are fixed and some are moving?” the answer would be: if they were all in one condition and had no difference, using stars to determine the world and earth’s status or things like weather forecasting, etc. would be impossible. By the same way, astrologists use sun and stars movement in different constellation and the difference of their aspects, like Conjunction, sextile, quadrature, trine, can predict future events.

And if all of them were moving together and some were not fixed, especially if they moved fast, the movement of the planets could not be defined by different constellations and aspects, because the movements of the planets should be measured by comparing them to fixed elements, like a traveler who moves from city to another city or from a station to another station.

And if all the stars moved together or if all moved fast these benefits would not be achieved and the current advantages would also perish, then we could complain that: “since all the stars move like each other, it is obvious that the unintelligent and unthinking nature has caused them.”

Therefore, this difference in the stars’ movement which complies with the needs and benefits of the creatures is a reason that they are not created randomly and God the almighty has created them.

O Mofazzal think upon the stars and see that some of them appear at certain parts of the year, and hide at other times, like Pleiades cluster, Gemini, Procyon, and Canopus, because if these all appear at once, then distinguishing the seasons and weather conditions would not be possible; while, by the appearance of some of them the time of ripening of fruits, and loading of the camels is recognizable.

While He has set some stars as appearing and some as hiding, He also has set some stars as never hiding like Ursa Minor, Polaris, Pherkad, which can be used for defining the direction of Qibla, or finding the way and direction in seas and deserts. Since these can be seen from almost anywhere on earth, and normally can be seen by the eyes, with their aid, the right direction can be found. And in these arrangements there are lots of benefits, the lack of any one of them would cause problems.

There are endless benefits in the stars, because these are the tools for defining the timing of affairs like farming, planting, earth and sea journeys, also the sign for assigning incidents like wind blowing, raining, heat and cold. Travelers also use their light to move on at nights.

Even in their movements to the east and west, there are lessons for those who like to think and learn. Because these stars move so fast that the speed is unimaginable. If these stars were close to us, their extreme light would make humans blind, like the lightening, which if happens continuously could cause the same thing, or like the case when a group of people gather in a room and extreme lights rotating round their heads, would cause them to feel dizzy and fall on the ground.

So notice why God has designed the stars to be far away from earth despite their high speed, so that not only they would not harm us, but also we could use their dim light, as well as the benefits in their movements. And it is clear that if it were not for these dim lights, humans could not move on at nights.

So notice God’s blessing and wisdom that combined the darkness of the night with light so that humans would not be in trouble.
O Mofazzal think upon the movement of the sun, moon, stars, and constellations. See how their movement has discipline and they do not rotate haphazardly. The four seasons of the year is caused by them, and the growth of different animals and plants is due to those movements.

Can such a wisdom and plan that affects the whole world be produced without a knowing God?

If someone says that “all these could be accidental”, we would answer, “if the same person passes by a garden and sees water wheel wheeling and pumping water to all the garden, and the garden is full of plants and ripe fruit trees, would such a person think the whole garden had been working accidentally by itself and without a farmer taking care of the whole thing? And that there was no planning and planner behind the whole thing?” If that person is bold enough to admit this, wouldn’t people think he is crazy?

And if we accept that such a garden could not be without a gardener, and that the simple water wheel could not be created without a creator, then how could he accept that this vast world could be created without a knowing and powerful God, while His blessings and wisdom for earth had been so immense that the humans’ brain is unable to comprehend even one hundredth of it?

And like machines made by humans, that might fail to work, if there would be any problems in this vast world, who else than God would be able to fix the problem?

Day and Night

O Mofazzal think about the length of day and night and see how it has been planned due to the benefits of God’s creatures and in most residential places on earth, it would not exceed 15 hours.

If the length of day and night would exceed a hundred or two hundred hours all the animals and plants on earth would perish; the animals could not rest due to long days, and humans would be working all the time, and these would cause the extinction of them, and the plants would dry out due to constant sunlight.

And if night would last a hundred or two hundred hours, animals would stop moving during this period and would starve to death. And the plants would rot when the heat inside them finished, like plants that when growing in places without sunlight would rot.

Heat and Cold

O Mofazzal learn from the heat and cold that consequently follow each other and see how by decreasing and increasing they preserve the equilibrium and result in the four seasons.

Also, this heat and cold causes the body to tan and makes the body healthier, and if heat and cold would not affect the bodies of humans and animals, they would both die.

Now look at how heat and cold fade into each other, and they do not change into each other abruptly. If it would change from cold to hot without any resolution, bodies would get hurt and chronic diseases would spread, like a person who enters cold weather after taking a hot bath and would usually get sick.

Why did God make the heat and the cold resolve into each other? Was it not to prevent sudden losses? And if the world did not have any plans why would the heat and cold gradually fade into each other to prevent diseases.

If somebody says, this gradualness is due to the slowness of the rotation of the sun, then we would ask, what is the reason for this slowness? If they say, the reason is the longs sun orbit that it should complete, then we would ask for the reason, and this could be continued till the only answer would be God’s wisdom, who planned the world system in a way and the sun’s speed. If it is going to continue like this, it would be unreasonable, because all these creature with all the wisdom in their creation can only be created by a wise God.

If there were no heat, the solid and bitter fruits would not get ripe and sweet and people could not use its wetness and dryness. And if there were no cold the seeds of plants would not increase and the crops would not increase to the extent that humans and animals need and no excess would remain for the next year’s crop.

So don’t you see the benefits in the heat and cold? However, despite these benefits, when humans are harmed by them, they get disappointed, forgetting that the heat and cold had once been to their own benefit.

The Wind

O Mofazzal let me tell you about the benefits in the wind; don’t you see that if wind does not blow for a while it would cause diseases? Breathing would not be easy, and patients would die. Fruits, vegetables and legumes would rot. Plague and cholera would spread among humans and pests would increase among crops. Therefore the blowing of winds is due to God’s wisdom.

O Mofazzal, let me inform you about the benefits of air. Know that sound is produced with the friction of things against air and air helps to transfer it to the ear and people use it to speak during day and night. If this effect remained in the air – like how ink stays on paper – the whole world would be full of sounds and would make life difficult for people and they would need to change the air and replace it, like papers that are fully written and should be replaced when there is no space left on it. Changing the air would be even much more difficult because people say more than they write.

So God set this air like a thin and transparent paper that carries the words and wipes them clean for the next words, and never gets weary.

And this breeze which is called air is vital for the survival, meaning that this air when it is breathed causes the revival of the body, and by its contact with the skin, it causes vivacity and mirth.

And sounds from long distances help transmit smells to the nose. Don’t you see that whichever direction the wind blows from, smells and sounds are stronger from that side? The air transfers both cold and heat which are necessary for the body to sustain. The blowing of the wind causes the clouds to move from one place to another and pastes them together till they cover the sky and the rain starts. Then they spread away and cause the trees to enripen, and the ships to move, the foods and fruits become tender, and the waters become colder; the fire intensifies, which causes wet clothes and things to dry up. To sum up, the sustenance of everything is due to the wind, and if there were no wind, plants would whither, animals would die, and many things would get hot and rot.

The Earth

O Mofazzal, think upon the four elements that God has created each for the needs of humans. One of them is the earth, which God has set it vast so there would be enough space for accommodation, farming, wood, and from which medical herbs, and useful mines could be extracted.

A stupid person might say, “What is the use of these empty and vast deserts and plains?”

These are the refugee for wild animals and leisure place for humans, and if the earth had not been so vast, people would be like prisoners who could not free themselves.

God set the ground stable and static so people can easily work, live and sleep. If the earth’s movement could be felt all the time, people could not do any farming, industry or commerce. Look at the earthquake that despite its short length causes people to leave their houses and escape. If someone asks, “Then why is there earthquakes at all?” the answer would be earthquake and similar disasters are to warn people to stop committing sins. Diseases and the damages to their properties are also for the overall good of humans, and God will compensate for them in the hereafter, or if proper in this world.

And one of God’s wisdoms is that earth’s nature is cold and dry, and stone is likewise, and the difference between these two is that stone is dryer than earth. Now if the whole earth had been made of stone or as solid as stone, could any plants that the sustenance of animals and humans depends on it grow out? Or would it be possible to plow and build things on it? Therefore, He made it softer than stone so building things on it would be easier.

The Waters on Earth

And another one of God’s wisdom in the creation of the world is that in most places of the earth, the North Pole is higher than the rest of the places; therefore, the northern hemisphere is always higher than the southern hemisphere. That’s why most rivers and waters like Dajle and Forat stream from north to south. The underground waters are also dependent on the earth’s steep, so when they reach the surface in the form of springs they stream from north to south. All waters are like this, they are used to irrigate the lands and the excess flows into the sea, like a house’s gable roof which is made so, in order to let the excess water flow down and not accumulate on top of the roof.

Likewise, God set the source of northern winds higher than those of southern winds, because if it weren’t so, the waters would not move and would stand still; people could not do many things, and routes would be blocked.

If the rivers and streams were not so abundant people would face difficulty, because finding drinkable water for themselves and their animals, and irrigating their lands, trees, and the drinking of wild animals, birds, and the life of fishes would face difficulty. There are still other benefits that you already know but cannot fully understand its magnificence, because there are more advantages to it than what ordinary people know like mixing it with other drinks to make them softer, washing clothes with it, turn soil into mud with it for building houses, to set out burning fire, to use in bathrooms to help people wash away their fatigue, and many other advantages that would only be learned in times of need.

And if you doubted the benefits of the waters of the earth and asked, “so what’s the use of it?” know that, water is the living place for many kinds of birds and aqua animals, and is the mine for pearl, coral, ruby, amber and many medicines and precious stones are extracted from water, and in the beaches, incense stick and many other aromatic plants and medical roots can be found.

In addition, sea is the basis for many commercial journeys with far lands; like the goods being transferred from china to Iraq, from Basrah to Kufa, and from India to other places, and if animals remained the only means for transporting goods, many of those things would rot before reaching the destination, and nobody could use them, because the fee for their transportation would exceed their price and this would result in two losses:
first, the scarcity of different kinds of goods in places where people would need it;
and less jobs for those who earn money by transporting these goods.

The Air

And the reason for this vast atmosphere and air is that if it weren’t this large, smoke and steam would fill everywhere and breathing would become difficult for people, and could not bear in itself clouds and haze.

The Fire

Fire also has advantages. If it moved freely on earth like water, or in the air, it would burn everywhere. But since people need it all the time and many of their works depends on it, God set it dependent on the stone and wood.

Therefore, due to people’s extreme need for fire, it is neither stuck within stone and wood, nor spread in the air, but is extractable from wood and stone, and is usable by oil, wick, and wood stick so people can protect themselves from its dangers.

Also, He set it a means for humans only, because animals do not need fire for their daily works. Therefore, God planned such hands and fingers for humans so they can make fire and use it, but has not given animals such things and instead has helped them tolerate the cold.

One of the benefits of fire is that it acts like a lamp that helps people at nights. If the fire did not exist people would be like corpses at night and could not do anything, and if anyone would get sick nothing could be done for him. Other benefits of the fire are using it for cooking, heating the body, drying clothes, recognizing things, etc. and many other things.

Clouds and Rain

O Mofazzal think about the reason why the sky gets cloudy and then clear and why God has designed it both ways. Because if it would constantly be either way, life would be difficult. If it rained constantly vegetables and legumes would rot and animals would be weak, and the weather would be cold and many diseases would spread among people, and transportation routes would be blocked. And if the weather was always clear, the earth would dry out, plants would burn, springs and rivers would dry up, and people would face many losses. But since it is sometimes cloudy and other times clear, the weather is mild, and everything is vivacious.

If someone asks, why didn’t God make each unharmful and why should it be necessary to be completing each other? Humans need difficulties to stop sinning and start thinking, like a patient who by using bitter and harsh medicine recovers. Therefore, the soul needs to be purified and recover by witnessing such calamities.

O Mofazzal if a king grants people thousands of trays of gold and silver, it would seem so generous in the people’s eye and the king would be famous for his generosity. While it is nothing compared to God’s generosity that enlivens cities and lands, with his rain; the crops of which would be much more valuable than those gold and silver.

Don’t you see that how much worthy and important is the rain, while humans are ignorant about it! Despite all these blessings that God has bestowed upon them, if they ask for a tiny thing, and they receive it late, they get angry and forget all these blessings. They do not realize that their welfare is in this, and the minor pleasure makes them ignorant about the big blessings.
O Mofazzal think about the rain falling and how God has designed it in a way that it falls from above, so that it affects all the high and low places on earth. And if it did not fall from a high latitude and streamed from another direction, it could not cover mountains and high places and farming would decrease.

Don’t you see the area that is covered by rainfall is larger than the area irrigated by hand? Because rainfall covers all the high and low parts of the earth, and many deserts and plains, and valleys, out of which lots of crops are produced without the need for humans to bother themselves and irrigate the whole lands and the quarrels between people for water would cease. Therefore, despots could not tyrannize powerless and weak people by ruling over water.

In addition, since rain falls downward, God has planned the rain to fall in drops so that it can penetrate into the ground and satiate underground, and if the rain would stream down instead of falling in drops it would stream on the ground and not penetrate into the ground, and the branches and plants would break down. But the rain drops enlivens the earth, and flourishes farms and lands and does not damage the plants.

And in the rainfall there are other benefits: it makes bodies soft and tender, takes away pollution, diminishes diseases like plague, cholera, and similar diseases that are caused by polluted air and eradicates plant diseases.

If somebody asks, “why does sometimes this rain increase so much that causes flood and damages the farms and results in diseases?” The answer would be, “this is true and the reason is that God brings people’s faith and religion before their increasing of property. He then lets them be affected by such calamities to stop sinning. Allah says in Quran: “And We will most certainly try you with somewhat of fear and hunger and loss of property and lives and crops; and give good news to the patient” (the Cow, 155).

Mountains and Mines

O Mofazzal, think about these mountains that are made of soil and stone heaped on each other, and stupid people think they are redundant and useless. Learn that this is wrong, and mountains have lots of benefits: snow that covers the mountain peaks melts gradually throughout the year to help people with their needs. Some of it flows into river and some joins the underground water.
Also, different kinds of medical herbs that do not grow on plains, can be found in these mountains.

Moreover, there are caves and refuges in mountains for wild animals. On its top, castles and fortresses can be built against enemies. With their stones, buildings and mills are built. The mines of many kinds of metals and jewelry is within these mountains. There are many more advantages to these hills and mountains that God almighty only knows about.

O Mofazzal, think upon jewelry and stone mines and see how people use it to satisfy their needs, like: plaster, lime, arsenic, industrial glaze, antimony, copper, plumb, tin, iron, steel, silver, gold, ruby, topaz, emerald, and tar, mummy, brimstone, oil, etc.

Is it then hidden to the wise that God has set treasures within earth that people could use in times of need?

On the other hand, He has not set those treasures so accessible that everyone could find it, and has not revealed alchemy. Because if gold and silver could easily be mined and was accessible to everyone it would lose its worth and could not be used for trading. There would be no tax, and nobody could save anything for their children.

On the other hand, God inspired people to make thinks similar to silver and gold. They made golden colored things from copper, glass like things from sand, silver like things from plumb, golden like things from silver, etc.

And those who go underground in search of finding out about the mysteries of mines, will reach rivers that are constantly streaming and the end of which could not be reached; at the end of those rivers are mountains like silver.

This is to let people know that God’s treasures are endless and if He wills He could create silver mountains, but since it would decrease the worth of them, He did not do so; like a dish or cloth or anything new that is expensive in the beginning, but decreases as time passes as those things become abundant.

The Plants

O Mofazzal, think upon the benefits in plants and see how fruits and seeds have been created for our food, and grass and straw for animals, stick for setting fire, wood for carpentering, skin, leaf, root, stem and gum for other uses.

If the fruits were on the ground accumulated together, although we would benefit from the fruits but we missed the benefits of the tree’s woods, leaves, straw, etc.

Also the pleasure that people feel when they see greenery and trees and colorful flowers and different blossoms is not comparable to any other pleasure.

O Mofazzal think about the increase of seeds in farming. See how God has made a seed in a way that produces hundreds of seeds. And if only one seed would result from the one planted, there would be no benefits in it, because in addition to that year’s product, farmers would need next year’s seeds as well.

Don’t you see that if a king wants to improve a city, he should provide the farmers with the seeds to plant and the food for their sustenance till they can harvest the product? Now see how God has given people more than they can think of to provide them for their sustenance.

Palm tree and other kinds of fruits create lots of small saplings that if separated and planted elsewhere, the main tree would remain healthy, and also if the main tree is infested, something would remain out of it and it would not perish altogether.

Think about the growth of such seeds as lentil, mung, bean and the like and see how God almighty has planned them to grow in a container or sack that would protect against pests till there are strong enough, like a fetus that grows within the womb.

Wheat and the like are set within hard shells with a spear on its top so that birds would not be able to eat the grains. If someone says: “then why some birds do eat the grains?” , the answer would be because God takes care of all his creature’s livelihood, but still the spearlike top of the grain would drive away the birds to damage all the crops.

So God set these covers to protect the seeds and when they are ripe enough, birds could feed on a part of it, but still the major part remains for humans, because the rights of the farmers is far more than those of birds.

O Mofazzal think about the creation of plants. They constantly need food like animals, but contrary to them do not have mouths, and cannot move to find their foods. So God has set their roots in the ground so that they can absorb food from the ground and transfer it to the leaves and fruits.

So the earth is like a mother that educates its child and the roots are like baby’s mouth that sucks milk from the mother’s breasts.

Haven’t you seen the pillars of tents that are pulled from every side by ropes so that it wouldn’t bend and stands straight. Likewise, trees and other plants have roots that spread over within earth that prevent it from falling down or bending.

If there weren’t these roots how could tall and strong trees like palm, pine, buttonwood stand straight and do not bend with strong winds?

So look at God’s wisdom who has offered humans the solution to set up tents by looking at nature.

O Mofazzal, think upon the creation of leaves and how God has designed them. Each leaf has veins that spread over like the veins in the human body. Some are thicker and some are thiner and all are woven into each other. And if it were to be made by humans, they would need at least a year and lots of different equipment, professional consult, precision and time. But in spring, God creates so many beautiful flowers and leaves and trees, grass, blossoms, anemones, etc. in a short period of time that the plains and mountains are not spacious enough to keep them.

And those small veins that are spread over the leaves is a means to transfer water and food to all over the leaf, and for the thicker leaves, they help keep the leaf’s posture and prevent it from drooping and withering.

So leaves are similar to the cloths that humans make and the sticks they use to keep them safe. So textile industry is inspired by God’s creation of leaves, although it is not still as perfect.

Fruits

Think upon the kernel of fruits and know that the kernel is the substitute for tree. If the tree is infected or damaged the kernel can be planted so that another tree grows up, like precious things that are kept within containers so they would not be damaged. The other reason for its existence is that the solid and rigid kernels of soft fruits prevents it from being crushed. Moreover, some seeds are edible, some are extracted for oil, and some used in other works.

Now that you learned about the kernel, think about the fruit that holds this kernel, like dates, grapes, etc. which are tender and delicious, while the fruit of trees like pine, and cedar are not so. So God designed the fruits to be this delicious so humans can enjoy eating them.

O Mofazzal think about God’s wisdom in planning the annual cycle for trees, that they die once a year, but keep their natural heat, by which the essence of fruits take form and the tree again revives in spring and ripens its fruits for humans to enjoy. When you think deeply, you will see that a fruit tree is stretching its hands towards you to pick up from its fruits, and the blossomed trees or flowers are stretching their scented flowers towards you to pick from any one that you wish.

If you have brain and can think why don’t you recognize your host? And if you are intelligent why don’t you recognize all these blessings and thank for them? All these foods, fruits, vegetables, and rivers with different colors and tastes in gardens, mountains, deserts, are prepared for you, while you deny all this kindness and commit sins instead of thanking for these blessings.

Learn from the creation of pomegranate and grapes and the reflections of God’s power in them. The flesh of pomegranate is like a hill between which the seeds are arranged and stuck together, as if someone has put them there. The seeds are also separated by these flesh and each part is covered by a thin layer and this layer is unbearably thin and soft and then all these are covered in a hard shell. If inside the pomegranate were only the seeds, food could not reach the seeds; therefore, the seeds are connected on their end to the flesh so the food can reach them. The seeds are then covered within the thin layer so they do not get crushed and the outer hard shell protects the pomegranate from cold and heat.

These that we said are only some of God’s wisdoms used in the creation of pomegranate and if one likes, more could be said about it.

O Mofazzal, think about zucchini, melon, watermelon, cucumber, etc. since they have large fruits, they grow on bushes so the fruits can spread over the ground. If they grew on top of trees, how could trees bear these heavy fruits? Definitely the branches would break down when the fruits got ripe.

Also notice the time of year these fruits are ripe. They grow at times when it is too hot and people need it, and if they grew in winter, people would not be interested in eating them. In addition, they would harm their bodies. Don’t you see that a certain kind of cucumber only grows in winter, and people do not like eating it, and only the greedy ones who do not care about their health eat it?

O Mofazzal, think about the palm. Since palm is by nature female, and needs a male for reproduction, God has created a male tree for it. Think upon this tree and see how its trunk has a woven texture like a woolen cloth, and this is to give it a strong structure so that it does not bend while holding the heavy dates bunches and are not affected by strong winds, and so they could be used for making ceilings, bridges, etc.

When you look at other types of woods, you would see that they also have a woven structure and its parts like cloth are interwoven. Despite their softness, they are so strong due to its woven structure that doors and windows can be made out of it, because if they were as solid and rigid as stones, they could not be used in ceilings, chairs, and boxes.

And the benefits and features of wood and stick is that it floats on water, so ships can be made out of it to carry heaps of load from city to city cheaply and easily. If it were not so, transferring goods that are heavy for humans would be impossible for them.

Medical Herbs

O Mofazzal, think upon plant roots and medical herbs, each created for a specific reason. ‘fumitory’ is penetrates through veins, vessels, joints of the body and dilutes their dense content, ‘epithymum’ dispels yellowbile; ‘Ferula’ heals flatulence, other ones heal swellings. Who has created them with all these characteristics except for a God who has created them to the benefits of humans? And who has inspired people with the medical benefits of each except for the One who put those benefits in each?

Is it possible as some say, that people learned about their benefits suddenly and coincidentally? Even if could, then how did animals learn about their benefits? Could they before God’s inspiration learn what each plant’s benefits are? Like many wild animals that heal their wounds with certain roots, and some birds do clysis using sea water, etc.

And you might doubt the benefits of all these plants in the plains and deserts, and when you see them growing in places that no human lives, you might assume they are redundant, while it is not so, and many are the food for wild animals, and the seeds are for wild birds, and the sticks good for setting fire by travelers, and many of those are medicine for diseases, many are good for tannery, and some are used to produce colors and many other benefits.

Did you know that the most worthless plant is this ‘papyrus’, which still is used to make paper and everybody, the rich and the poor need it. They are used for making mats, and covers to wrap glass and crystal with it and many other benefits.

So learn from any small or large thing that you see and notice the benefits even in the least valuable things. There is nothing most despicable and filthy than the excrement of animals and humans, but still they are used as fertilizer in farms and gardens which are so important. Moreover, many kinds of plants only grow with the aid of these fertilizers, while everyone assumes them filthy and dirty.

And know that the worth and benefits of things cannot be defined by their price. Everything has two prices and two markets: one is the commercial market, and the other is the scientific market. So if something is cheap in the commercial market, do not assume that is also cheap and useless in the scientific market, but many times they are very useful in science. Likewise, if alchemists knew what benefits excrements has to their works, they would buy even with the most expensive prices.

Mofazzal says, when imam reached here it was already noon and my master raised up for praying, and told me: “come back tomorrow if God wills”.

I stood up and returned my home while I was exhilarated for all the knowledge that my master has taught me and thanked God for all the blessings He had bestowed upon me, and slept while eager for tomorrow morning.

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