Chapter 1

Creation of the World

 Mofazzal said, early in the morning I rushed to imam and after being accepted entered another private room and sat in front of him. Imam said, “It seems that you have had a long night waiting for this meeting.” I replied, “Yes, my master”. He then said, “Mofazzal, there was God and nothing else but God before Him. He is the only One remaining and He is immortal; He is the One worthy of worship and praise for what He imbued us with; for Him is praising for the sciences He inspired us with and the ranks He elevated us with; He chose us over His other creatures and made us witnesses over them, and did this using His wisdom.”

 Mofazzal asked for permission to take note of what Imam was going to say. After giving permission Imam continued: “O Mofazzal! Those who doubt the existence of a creator for this world are simpletons, who do not understand the causes and effects evident in the creation of the world, and their minds is unable to understand all the wisdom God has used in the creation of His creatures in seas, deserts, mountains and fields. They have chosen to deny God due to the deficiency of their knowledge, and have started to deny and resist the truths because of their little vision. They have renounced the existence of a creator and debate that there is no intelligence in the creation of the world and that the creation had not been based on wisdom, thought, proficiency and wisdom.

 But, God is more sublime than how they describe him. God’s curse be on them who seeing the obvious evidences, are still diverted from the right path. They will remain in their aberration and bewilderment like a blind person who enters a grand mansion, built using the strongest and most beautiful architecture, and decorated with the most exquisite carpets, full of all kinds of foods and drinks and everything else that a person would need to live. Everything is set in its proper place and in proper portions and sizes. The blind walks within the walls of this mansion, turning left and right, entering its myriad chambers, with eyes shut to the building’s structure, and whatever arranged in it. He might even triple blindly over containers or items, which he might urgently need, but not knowing their nature be raged by the nuisance, and even insult the architect for placing those items in his way.

 The same is the status of this group who deny the creator’s wisdom and His foresight in creating the world, because their minds are incapable of understanding the causes and reasons of the created things in this world, and when one of them approaches a thing, the cause of which he cannot comprehend and the details of which he cannot understand, he starts blaming it altogether, describing it by mistake; like the followers of Mani , the painter and his atheist followers.

 Therefore, it is necessary for those on whom God has granted His wisdom, and whom He has guided to His religion, to ponder upon the intelligence used in the creatures, and to investigate the reasons of their creation, and to recognize God by such reasons that lead minds towards Him. He should then praise God for His creation and be grateful to Him for His guidance, to keep him in the right path and to increase His guidance, because God says: “if you are thankful towards me, indeed I will increase my bounties for you, and if you are ungrateful, indeed my torment is severe.”

 Imam then said, “O Mofazzal, the first evidence and reason for the existence of a creator for this world is its structure and the arrangement and making of its components in perfection, because if you contemplate on this world, you will find it like an estate in which all the things His creatures might need are prepared. The high sky is like their ceiling and the vast ground is like a cloth/carpet spread under their feet; the stars are ranged in the best order like lamps hanging from this ceiling; the jewelry that is hidden in its mountains are like treasures kept for them; and everything is created for a purpose. This house is given to the humans as a present and all that is inside it, is put to his service; all plants are created for his profit and animals are created for his interest. The arrangement and adjustment of all these is an obvious reason that the creator of all these is unique, who related all creatures together and made some dependent upon others; and that there is no God other than Him and He is greater than what atheists suggest and how pagans describe Him.”

 Imam then said, “Mofazzal I will start with the creation of mankind, so take heed and learn from it. The first percept is God’s plan to create the germ inside the womb, when it is covered within three kinds of darkness: the darkness of the abdomen, the darkness of the womb, and the darkness of the sac; when it has no other alternatives for nourishment, receiving and discharging things. It cannot gain any beneficial thing and cannot distract any harm. Food is then transferred into its body through the menstrual discharge and blood becomes its food, like water which feeds plants, and this feeding continues until its creation is completed, its bones are strengthened and its skin is ready to be in contact with air, in a way it would not be damaged by the heat or the cold, and its eyes are strong enough to bear light. When these stages are accomplished, the mother feels the pain of delivering the baby, and the baby is born.

 When it is delivered through the tight route of the cervix into the vast world, it needs another type of food. Then God the Almighty changes the same red menstrual blood which had been its food so far, into the white, soft drink, with a completely different taste and color, since now this food is more compatible with its body than the previous one. The moment it needs this new type of nourishment, milk is ready for the baby to drink. With the help of God, the baby already knows to bring out its tongue, and to move its lips when needing food, and the mother’s breasts, like hanging sacs, make it easy for the baby to be fed. Therefore, as far as its body is wet and sensitive, and its digestive organs are thin and its parts are soft and tender, and it cannot take more complex and delicious foods, this milk is the best food for it.

 When the baby grows up and is stronger and bigger, and needs a richer food which helps its body parts to become stronger, the teeth start growing. The molar teeth are suitable for breaking the hard foods into softer pieces. It will grow up until it reaches puberty. If the person is male, he will start having facial hair, which makes him distinct from women, and if the person is a female, God cleanses her of facial hair, which makes her look more beautiful and fresh, and more pleasant to the male eye, by the help of which human race does not extinguish. Contemplate on this wisdom Mofazzal. Is it possible that all this be created without a unique wisdom?

 If the blood does not reach the germ, it dries out like a plant that dries out without water; and if when it has grown fully in the womb, the pain of delivering the baby did not inflict the mother, it would be buried alive within the womb, and if when it is born, milk is not ready for it, it would either die or should be fed by another kind of food which might not be good and enough for its body. When the baby needs richer foods, it should have teeth; otherwise, chewing and eating different foods would not be possible for it, while milk would not also be sufficient to make its body strong, and the mother should always be attending the child only. If he did not grow beard, he would always be similar to women or kids.

 Mofazzal then asked, “I have seen some men that never grow beard. Why is that so?”
 Imam said, “This is because of what their precedents have done, and God does not oppress His creatures.”
 Imam then continued, “who is he who is always concerned about humans, except for the God who has created them from nothing, and if the world is based on no wisdom, then the use of wisdom should have caused disarrangements within the system, and such belief only shows the foolishness of its believer, since any wise person knows that disarrangement does not result in order.

Senselessness of Infants

 Imam then said, “If the baby was born with reason and a mature mind, the world would seem to it perplexing, since it would witness things that were new and strange to it, like different creatures in the world, birds, mammals.

 Pay attention to the status of those who are taken prisoners or are sent away from one city to another. If the person is a sane one, it would be confusing and perplexing to him; while if the person is a child or insane, it would be less intimidating for him. Such a person would feel perplexed, even if he has seen similar cases in other places. In a child’s case, this is more severe, because children learn faster than a prisoner.

 So, if the child is born with reason and wisdom, it would be bothered when it sees its inability to walk, when it is carried by adults and covered within clothes. Also, if it was born with reason and intellect, the childishness and foolishness of other children would bother him. Therefore, it is born without intellect, and meets the world and feels its objects and gradually gains wisdom, and gets used to strange matters, and reaches from uncertainty to certainty and takes heed of matters that would be wrong and sinful. If it was born with a mature mind, the sweetness of raising a child would be meaningless for his parents, and consequently the results of a good upraising would not be achieved for the parents and the children – the intimate relationship that would result from this kindness of the parents towards their children in their young ages – and their parents would not become close friends, since children did not need their parents from the time they were born and would become independent of them. Also, if the baby was being born with wisdom, it would witness the mother’s private parts, which are not proper for a child to see. Don’t you see how every detail in this world is created with reason?”

 “Oh Mofazzal! Understand the reason for a baby’s crying. Know that in an infant’s nose, there is a kind of wetness which would cause immense diseases and pains if it was not let out, diseases like blindness and likewise. Crying causes this wetness to be discharged and would result in a healthier body and healthier eyes. But the parents do not know the benefits of the child’s crying and they try to stop its crying. Likewise there are reasons for many things in this world that those who deny a wise creator, do not know of; therefore, deny the necessity of a unique wise creator for this world, and if they knew the reasons, they would stop rejecting things unknown to them, and would stop saying that those things have no benefits, only because they do not know the reason for its creation. Because everything that the unintelligent people do not know about, the intelligent know, and many things that the ordinary people are ignorant of, God, the all-knowing, knows about.

 And the baby’s saliva which is always flowing from his mouth is a way of discharging the wetness in its body, which if remaining inside, would cause diseases, and if they dominate the body, they would cause madness or paralysis or distortion of half of the face. So God, the Almighty, has enabled these moistures to be discharged from the mouth, so that the baby would be healthy when he grows up.

 And God has given His creatures blessings that they do not realize, and if they understood them, they would start thinking about their creator and would not commit sins any more. So unique is the God, whose bounties and blessings is complete for those who need or those who do not need, and is far greater than how the deniers describe Him.”

Body parts

 “O Mofazzal! Pay attention how God has created male and female reproduction organs. He has given men an organ that becomes larger and longer so that the germ could be sent in the furthest (and safest) place in the womb, and the liquid could be transferred easily, and has created female organ like a container that keeps the germs till it grows up and is strong enough to be born. Isn’t this wisdom delicate and wise? God is larger than what atheists ascribe to Him.

 O Mofazzal! Ponder upon all the body parts and the reason for which they have been created: hands for working, feet for walking, eyes for seeing, mouth for eating, stomach for digestion, liver for purifying, and pores for keeping or discharging body wastes, sex organs for reproduction,; likewise, if you ponder upon each organ you will see that they are all made for a reason.”
 Mofazzal said, “O my master, some say nature itself does these things.”

 Imam Sadeq (AS) said, “Ask them, does this nature that you believe in do all these things intelligently and consciously or not? If they say it does them consciously and intelligently, then they are admitting God and proving His existence and only name Him differently as Nature. And if they believe that nature does these things unconsciously – while they are all coordinated based on certain reasons and rules, then this nature should itself be a creation of a creator who has set those rules. Therefore, fools look at the effects like nature and forget about the causes of those effects.”

 “O Mofazzal, think about God’s wisdom and how food reaches different parts of body, first it enters into the stomach, and the stomach refines it and sends it by thin veins to the liver. These veins again refine the food till it is soft and prevent the harsh parts to reach the liver and injure it, because liver is sensitive and cannot tolerate harsh and dense things; therefore, refined material reaches it and turns into blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile.

 There are routes from liver, like routes and canals that are made in fields to carry water to all parts of the ground. These routes are spread to all over the body, and the humors or anything that should be disposed moves through these routes to containers that are set for each function; the yellow bile goes to the gallbladder, the black bile goes towards the lien and the humid goes to the bladder.

 So think about the wisdom of the all-knowing God and how He has created the body and put each organ in its place and made these containers that collect body wastes and humors so that they may not be spread within the body and cause diseases.”

 Mofazzal said, “Please elaborate for me the growing steps of the body till it is fully mature.”

 Imam Sadeq (AS) replied, “The first step is the forming of the fetus, where no eyes can see, and no hands can touch. He plans everything there so that when the time comes it is born out of the womb in its full form and with complete organs like bones, flesh, brain, vein, and cartilage.

 Then when it is born into the world, you will see how all the organs grow to the same extent and the overall form is not distorted till it reaches its full maturity or die before it. Could all these be caused without the wisdom and planning of a creator?

 O Mofazzal, look at God’s favors upon humans that have made them superior to animals, how he can stand on his two feet, and sit, so that he might do his daily works easily; while if he was made to crawl on hands and feet like animals, he would not be able to do any of those works.”

Human Senses

 “Now Mofazzal, look at those senses that are specially created for humans and which has made them superior; how He has set the eyes on top of the head so that it could cover everything, and has not set them in lower parts of the body, where they might be harmed or injured easily, or in the middle parts of the body like stomach and waist, so that seeing things would become difficult.

 And since there is no place in the body suitable for senses, they are placed in the brain, which is protected by a fortress. He has set five senses, so that everything could be sensed.

 Therefore, He set the eyes by which colors could be seen; if eyes did not exist, the creation of colors would be useless.

 He created the ears for hearing; if there were sounds, but ears were not created, the creation of sounds would be useless.

 In the same way if the things to be sensed were not created, the creation of senses would be useless.

 On the other hand, if eye was created, but colors were not; the creation of colors would have been useless; if ear was created, but sounds were not, the creation of ears would be useless.

 So behold how He has created everything as the cause for another thing; for each sense, he has created things to be sensed, and for each sensible thing, a sense to sense it.

 Also, each of the senses needs a medium – like light or sound waves to see and hear – between itself and the things to accomplish what it has been created for, without which these senses would not operate properly.; this means that if there weren’t light to help the colors reach the eyes, or if there weren’t air waves to help sounds reach the ear, the eye and the ear would not see or hear anything.

 Does this wisdom seem nonsense to a wise person? The senses, the things being sensed and the medium with which senses work properly, all are created intentionally and by someone who is all-knowing and pays attention to details.

 O Mofazzal think of a blind person and imagine what hardships he confronts; he cannot see in front of him, or his own trace, he cannot distinguish between colors, between the beautiful and the ugly, and if he reaches a hole, or an enemy attacks him, he cannot avoid it, and cannot do things like writing, carpentering, goldsmithing, and if he did not have his witty mind, he would be left away like a piece of stone thrown away.

 Also a deaf person is unable to do many of his works because he cannot take advantage of talking and hearing, and is deprived of inspiring and soothing songs and voices. Others would find it difficult to talk to him, and they get tired of talking to him, and he as well does not understand the people talking around him; as if although he is somewhere, he is not really present, and although he is alive, he is like a dead person.

 And a person who does not have brain, is like animals, even less, because animals know things that he does not know.

 So don’t you think that all the parts and brain and whatever humans need and is to his benefit, and all that if not created would cause him difficulties, has been created by a wise and knowing God?”

 Mofazzal said, “So why do some people lack these organs and are in pain and difficulty?”

 Imam said, “This is a way to make others think, like when a king punishes a person to make it an example for others to avoid evil deeds, and no one complains. Also, if the inflicted person is thankful to God and prays to Him, God will bestow upon him so much of his bounties in the world to come, that the hardships of this world would seem tiny compared to them.”

 “O Mofazzal think of those organs that are created even and those that are created odd, and their sizes and the wisdom used in their creation. He has created one head because there is no benefit in creating two heads. Imagine if a person had another head, what a waste it would become, while he had to carry a heavy weight with no use. Also, if he speaks with one head, the other head would be redundant. If he says one thing with two heads, then again one would be redundant, and if he says one thing with one head and another thing with the other head, the spoken words would not be distinguishable, and one would not know which one to listen to and understanding would be problematic.

 And He has created hands in pairs, because if a person had only one hand, he would not have much and would be weak in doing his daily work; like a carpenter or a mason, who if having one hand , would not be able to work properly like a person with two hands would.

 O Mofazzal think about sounds and speech and the related organs that God has created in humans. The larynx is like a tube that transmits sound, and the tongue and lips and teeth are tools for cutting the letters and turning them into sounds. Don’t you see that one who has lost his teeth cannot pronounce the sound “s”, or one whose lip is motionless, cannot pronounce the sound “f”, or one who cannot move his tongue, cannot pronounce the sound “r”? And the closest thing to the larynx and trachea is the bagpipe, because the larynx is like a pipe, and the lungs are like sacks into which air is blown, and the muscles that hold the lungs are like fingers that are constantly pressed upon the holes on the pipe so that the sound produced has different tones. Although we compared the trachea to the pipe, but in fact the pipe should be described based on the trachea, because the mouth, lips and teeth have been created before the pipe, and the pipe has been made by humans based on what God has created for the transmission of sounds.

 So I explained to you about these organs that are specified for talking, and pronouncing letters, while there are still more advantages in their creation; so the larynx is a way to let the breeze into the lungs, which act like a fan and enliven the heart; because this breath that constantly enters the lungs, if stopped for a short period, will kill humans.

 With the help of the tongue, different tastes are detected, and the bitterness, sweetness, and rottenness is sensed. Despite all these, it is an aid to swallow food and water easily.

 And the teeth chop the food so that they would be tender and swallowing them would be easier. These teeth are also a support for the lips that help them stay firm and prevent them from hanging.

 Now Mofazzal, ponder upon one who has lost his teeth, don’t you see that his lips are weak and when he wants to drink water, he sucks it so that the water does not pour into his mouth suddenly, because if water enters suddenly, it blocks the windpipe and hurts his throat.

 The lips are also like gates that the mouth is closed by them, so that whenever humans wish they would be able to open and close it.

 So with all these descriptions of the organs, you understand that each has some big advantages, like a tool that is used for several reasons, like a carpenter’s ax that is used for carving wood and digging the ground and other things.

 If human’s head is cut open, and the covers of the brain are drawn aside, you will see that the brain is covered within so many layers that protect it from things that would harm it and the prevent dislocation. And you will see that that the skull is like a helmet that protects it from being hit or scrubbed against something.

 And on the head’s skin, hair grows to protect it, like fur, from heat and cold. So who else than the God, who has created the brain and set it the center for human senses, can protect it because it is superior and more delicate than other organs?

 O Mofazzal, think of the eyelids’ structure and how it covers the eye like a curtain, so that the eye is opened or closed whenever you pull the rope, and has created the eye within a cave and protected it with eyelids and eyelashes.

 O Mofazzal, who has concealed the heart within the chest, and covered it with clothes? The ribs with the flesh and skin on it, are a shield for the heart, so that things outside the body cannot hurt it directly and wound it.

 Who has set two vents for the pharynx, one of which is the larynx which is used for transferring sound and breath and is connected to the lungs, and the other is esophagus and used for food and is connected to the stomach, and has set a plate on the pharynx so that it prevents the food to get into the trachea while eating, because otherwise humans will perish.

 Who has set the lungs as fans for the heart, which is constantly beating and never slows down and stops, so that the heat or the cold may not remain within the body and kill humans?

 Who has set barriers for the holes used for discharging human wastes, so that they are opened to discharge waste whenever he wishes and closed whenever he wants to? And if it had not been so, these wastes would be dropping constantly from the body and make life hard for humans.

 So how much of these blessings can be counted? But, those things that humans do not understand and consider unimportant are far greater than those that can be counted. And the things humans are ignorant about are much more than those they know about.
 Who set the stomach a strong container that can hold harsh and heavy foods and turn them soft?

 And who set the liver soft and delicate so that it can receive the soft extract of foods and process them softer than the stomach? 42 except for an all-mighty God who is capable of doing these?

 Do you think that without an accurate plan, knowledge and wisdom, such things would be possible?

 Never such things are possible without an all-knowing, all-mighty God, who knew the essence of things before creating them, and nothing is outside the limits of his strength, and He is the One who created things accurately and wisely.

 Think Mofazzal, why the thin marrow inside the bone is protected by the strong bones? Why the liquid blood is transferred within veins like water streaming inside containers. Isn’t it for the reason that they might be kept within the body and do not waste away?

 Why has He set the nails in the edge of the fingers? Isn’t it so to protect them and as an aid for the fingers in holding things?
 Why has He made inside the ears like the corridors of prisons? Isn’t it so to make sounds stream inside till they reach the eardrum, so that the wave is kept untouched while the eardrum is not hurt as well?

 Why has God set these flesh on the hips? Isn’t it so to make sitting without pain? Like a sick person whose sickness has made him thin and weak, if he does not sit on a soft place, the harshness of the ground would harm him.

 Who has created humans male and female so that they can reproduce?

 Who has given him the tools to work except for the God who has created him as a working being?

 Who has created him a working being except for the God who has created him dependent on other people?

 Who has created him dependent on other people except for a God who has prepared for him the tools for fulfilling his needs?

 Who has created him a thinking being except for a God who has created him responsible and has set him rewards and punishments for his doings?

 Who has given him the power to make decisions except for a God who has put him in situations to make decisions?

 Who has taken charge of those activities that for which humans cannot make decisions, except for a God whose bounties are countless?

 O Mofazzal, think of these things that I have described for you. Would it all be possible without a creator that has set everything working like a disciplined factory?

 God is greater than what He is described with.

 O Mofazzal, now I will describe the heart for you. In the human heart there are routes that are located in front of the pores that lead to the lungs; if these were not located in front of each other, the hear1t’s heat would not discharge and the man would die. Does a thinking being ignore all these and consider them random and without planning?

 So death, hopelessness and torment be to those who pretend to be philosophers. How have these become blind to these creations of God and deny a wise creator?

 If the male sex organ would always remain frail and loose, how could it send the sperm to the place it should reach? And if it remained hard all the time, how could he roll over in bed? Or how ugly it would be when he was walking in public, plus that it would always cause men and women to become sexually aroused? While God has created this organ in a way that it always remains frail, and to be erected only in times of need.

 O Mofazzal, ponder upon the great bounty of eating, drinking, and disposing waste that God has created in humans.

 Isn’t it so that a sign of good architecture is that the house’s lavatory is not exposed to view? On the same basis, the wise God has set body’s organ for disposing wastes in the most hidden place, and concealed it with thighs and hips so that they are not visible. So, bounteous is the God who constantly reveals to us His blessings, and His favor towards us is uncountable.

 O Mofazzal think upon these teeth that God has set in the mouth and see how some of them are sharp and used for cutting food, some are wide and used for chewing and chopping food; and since, humans need both kinds of teeth, God created both kinds for him, and set those that are needed for cutting in front of the mouth and those for chewing at the back.

 Think upon the creation of hair and nail and see how they grow and get long, and that they should be cut from time to time. That is why they do not have any nerves, so when they are cut, no pain is felt, and if they weren’t so, humans would be stuck in deciding between two undesirable things: he should either leave them grow and bear its load, or suffer the pain and cut them.”

 Mofazzal asked, “why didn’t God create them in a way that they didn’t grow so there would be no need cutting them?”

 Imam said, “God has blessed his creatures with the bounties He has bestowed upon them. In the growth of hair and teeth there are benefits that most people are unaware of and do not thank God for it. Know that certain diseases and pains in the body exit when hair grows out of its pore and nail grows out. That’s why we are recommended to apply depilatory every week or to shave head or to cut nails, so hairs and nails grow faster and with their growing out of the body bring out the pains and diseases within the body, and if they are long, and not cut, their growth rate decreases and the pains stay within the body and cause disease and abscess within body.

 Moreover, God did not let the hairs grow in parts of body that are harmful. If hair grew in the pupils, it would cause blindness, if it grew within the mouth, eating and drinking would be unpleasant for him, if it grew in the palm of hand, touching things and feeling things would be hard, and many works could not be done easily, therefore, notice that hair does not grow in parts that would cause trouble. And this is not an issue for humans only. Animals, and birds, and other childbearing animals do not have hairs in the parts mentioned.

 So, God’s creation is flawless and without mistake. Notice that He has created everything wisely.

 The believers in Mani have tried to find faults with the creation and say: “the pubic hairs and armpit hairs are redundant.” They do not realize that the hair growth there is due to the damp nature of those organs. Haven’t you seen that plants grow more in wet places and where water accumulates? Moreover, there are religious benefits for humans in shaving those parts, because Islam has recommended shaving them and will reward people for doing so. Moreover, getting involved in personal affairs like personal hygiene prevents people from spending the time on immoral things instead and is to the benefit of themselves.

 O Mofazzal, think about the saliva and its benefits. God has designed it in a way that it is produced constantly and makes the mouth wet, and if saliva was not produced, the mouth would be dry and he would die, and if this wetness did not mix with food, no edible thing would be delicious for humans. Moreover, it is a means to carry food towards stomach. It also wets the gallbladder to keep humans healthy, and if it dries up they would die.

 Many stupid philosophers, as a result of their lack of knowledge, say, “it would have been better if the human stomach had been like a shirt, so doctors could open it up whenever they wanted, but now that its insides are not accessible, many diseases should be detected by experiments on the urine, or blood, many of which do not show the true results, and many times such mistakes cause the death of the patient.

 The answer is that if it were so, people could easily detect their own diseases, and there would be no fear of death, and they would get conceited with their health, and continue corruption. Moreover, if it were so the humids that are produced within stomach would reach out and make anywhere that he sat or slept dirty, and his clothes would always be filthy and life would be hard for them. Also, the stomach and the liver operate properly as a result of the extreme heat that is produced within them, if there was a whole on the body, or it was accessible to the outside, the outside cold would reach inside and kill humans.

 Therefore, know that whatever humans imagine that is different from God’s wisdom, is a mistake.”

Eating and sleeping

 “O Mofazzal, think about humans’ daily activities – like eating, drinking, copulating. See how God has put stimulants within the body that encourage people to do so such things. Hunger encourages them to eat, which causes health. Fatigue tells him to sleep, which causes him to regain his strength. Lust encourages him to copulate and results in the expansion of his generation.

 Now if humans could not feel hunger, and ate food only because he knew that body needs food to be healthy, at times when he did not eat due to laziness or forgetfulness, his body would diminish and die; like the times when someone is sick but does not take medicine, which would result in a more severe disease and death.

 Also, if he slept only because he knew the body should rest, he would neglect it due to his greed in gaining wealth, and harm his body.

 Also, if copulation was only to increase children, the human generation would recede, because there are many people who do not want children. So know that God has set stimulators within the body to motivate him do certain things.”

Digestion

 The body has four powers:
First, the attracting power that accepts food and inserts it into the stomach.
Second, the retentive power that keeps the food within the stomach so it could be processed.
Third, the digestion power that cooks the food within the stomach and exports the puree to the rest of the body.
Fourth, the disposal power that disposes the wastes after the puree is absorbed by the body.

 Now think upon how these four powers have been organized, and how the body needs them.

 If there were no attraction power, how could humans seek for the food which strengthens their bodies? If there were no retentive power, how could the food stay within the stomach till it gets digestive? If there were no digestion power, how would the food be cooked and the puree reach different parts? If there were no disposal power, how could the rough remains and wastes be disposed?

 I will tell you an example in this respect: human body is like a king’s palace that has lots of servants and their task is planning and maintaining the body; some have the duty of buying the things needed, some should store them till they are needed for use, some should prepare them for use and give anyone what they need, and some should clean the palace and dispose the garbage. The king is God the almighty, and His servants are the body organs, and the rules are the powers of the body.

 Also, the way I described the powers is different from how doctors describe it in their books; meaning, doctors have explained them in a way that describes diseases and their medicine, while I have explained it in a way to clear away any doubts about God, and to make people see wisely.

Memory and Forgetfulness

 O Mofazzal, now that you learned about the physical powers of the body, think about the mental powers that the soul has like thinking, imagining, analyzing, memorizing, etc. and think about their benefits, and see what would happen if only memory would be omitted! So many problems would occur in daily life and the encounters with people; because he could not remember the things people owe him and the things he owes them, the things he has seen, heard, told. He would not remember who had been kind to him, who had been wicked, what had been beneficial for him, and what had been harmful. He could not remember a route even if he passed it several times. He would not remember anything even if he had spent his life learning science, he would not believe in any religions, and could not take advantage of any experience. In short, he could not be called a human.

 So think upon this only power in human body and see how many difficulties would be resulted when he loses all these powers.

 If you notice, you will learn that the bounty of forgetfulness is bigger than that of memory; because if forgetfulness did not exist, people could not find solace after any tragedy, their jealousies would not cease, their hatred would not alleviate, they could not enjoy life’s pressure, because he always remembers the calamities. If a king was angry towards him, he could never hope that he might forget it one day, or a person who is jealous of him, forget his jealousy.

 So don’t you see how God has brought together remembrance and forgetfulness which are opposites within human body and has made each useful and necessary?

 So if you think deeply you will understand that this harmony between these opposite characteristics makes humans confess the uniqueness of God and not His multiplicity, like Zoroastrians who are mistaken in their beliefs and believe in two Gods.

 God is greater than how they describe Him. Like these two opposites within human body that operate simultaneously and both are necessary for the creation of human, the whole world also contains opposites called evil and good, and the existence of both are necessary. All these exist in the world and the foolish don’t know about them.”

Sciences

 “O Mofazzal, think upon the thing that God has dedicated to humans from among all animals, and it is modesty. If modesty did not exist nobody would be hospitable, the promises wouldn’t be kept, and people’s needs wouldn’t be satisfied. Nobody would do any good, and nobody would refrain from the evil. Even many compulsory rules were observed only because of modesty. Because if it weren’t for modesty, many people wouldn’t respect their parents, visit their relatives, be generous to others, pay back people’s loans and stop sinning.

 So, don’t you see how god has given humans whatever they need for the betterment of their world and the hereafter.”
 “O Mofazzal, think upon the speaking ability of humans. See how his thoughts reach his mind, and he speaks his thoughts, and understands what’s in other people’s hearts. And if humans could not speak, they would be like other animals that could not talk about their thoughts and feelings and listen to other’s thoughts and feelings.

 Notice and see the benefits of writing and how the ancient people have handed over the news and how the contemporary people keep the news for the future generations. With its help books on various subjects, sciences, and cultures are written. With the help of writing humans write their contracts and calculations in their businesses. If there was no writing, the news of one generation would not reach to the next generations; a traveler could not write to his family, old traditions would perish, and cultures would diminish; huge problems would occur in people’s affairs and trades, the religious matters that should be learned by reading could not be learnt.

 You might think that God has not set these in people’s minds and souls, and that humans themselves have learned them, with their own intelligence, and by defining certain language preferences among them. That’s why their languages differ from each other and their handwriting differs like Arabic, syriac, Hebrew, Greek, etc.

 But it is not so, and if someone thinks so, we will answer them: “although humans are partly involved in talking and writing, and set its rules, but all of these are the result of God’s wisdom in creation that has given humans a talking tongue, and fingers to write with, and a mind that can understand things, the same way He has not given animals those abilities.

 So the main cause of all these is God’s creation and the blessings He has bestowed upon His creatures. So, whoever, thanks God for His blessings, God will reward him, and whoever is ungrateful should know that God is needless of His creatures’ gratitude.

 O Mofazzal, think upon those things that God has let humans learn, and those things that are made impossible to be learnt, and see how each is to the benefit of humans. So, God has let people learn those things that are to the benefit of their worldly and religious life, like the recognition of God by His signs in different things. Other things the knowledge of which is compulsory for humans is being just to others, being kind to parents, and being faithful to the loans, attending the poor. Everybody, whether Muslim or infidel, feels these things in himself, and affirm that these are right, because it is based on their nature and conscience.

 And think about those things that are related to humans’ worldly affairs and can be learned, like farming, gardening, fertilizing the earth, animal husbandry, extracting subterranean waters, botany, knowledge of medicinal plants, jewelry mining, building ships, diving in seas, hunting and related traps, advancements in industry, commerce, and economics, the description of each would take long, but which are beneficial for people’s affairs.

 So God has given humans what they need for the betterment of their worldly and religious life and prohibited them from learning about matters beyond their limit and ability, like the science of occult, prediction, or matters of the past, like the things in the heaven and underground, or in the seas, or in corners of the world, or what is inside people’s minds or inside mothers’ wombs, etc. some people pretend to have knowledge of such things, but the falseness of their claim can be understood when most of the things they claim prove to be wrong.

 So, notice how He has given humans the knowledge of things useful in their worldly and religious lives, and have discouraged them from learning the rest so that they may learn their own worth and shortages and both are to their own benefit.”

Indeterminate Time of Death

 “Mofazzal, think upon the time of death that is hidden, because if humans know how short their lives would be, life would be unpleasant for them, because they will see their lives short and their death close. He would be like a person that has lost his property or is losing them, so will constantly be in despair and fear of poverty. And the despair of losing life is stronger than the despair of losing property, because property can be replaced, but one who knows definitely the time of his death, will remain hopeless.

 On the other hand, if his life is long and he knows this, he will involve himself in forbidden pleasures and lust with the hope that he will repent by the end of his life, and God does not favor this manner and way of life.

 Haven’t you noticed that if you have a servant that bothers you all the year, but pleases you one day or one month only you would not accept it from him? And you would know him a good servant, only when he thinks of you and pleasing you in all his affairs.
 You might say, “isn’t it so that a person might be sinning all life and repent at the end of his life and his repentance is accepted?”

 The answer would be that it is accepted when a person’s desires subdue him and he can no more have control upon his soul, but he does not intend to boldly disrespect God with his sin. Then God forgives him. But a person, who sins all his life, planning to repent only at the end, God does not accept their repentance. Such a person wants to deceive a Being that can never be deceived, and his excuse is that I will enjoy life and repent later. Moreover, this person will not keep his promise and will not tolerate its hardships, because refraining from pleasures and repenting especially when the age is old is really hard. In addition, postponing repentance will not mean that he will be immune to death. Perhaps he could die without having the time to repent.

 Like an indebted person who determines a time to pay back his loan. Meanwhile, he has the money to pay back but he delays the payment till the day determined, and when the time comes he has spent all his money and has not yet paid his debt.

 Therefore, the best thing for humans is that their death time is not clear for them, so they would be ready for it anytime in their lives, and stop sinning and start obeying God.

 If you ask, “why even know that the time of death is not clear, and anytime his death may arrive, still they keep on sinning?”
 The answer is that: this is the right plan for humans, and if some still sin, it is because of the cruelty and barbarity of his heart and not a mistake in God’s plans. Likewise, a doctor may prescribe a medicine, but the patient does not act based on the doctor’s advice, it would be the patient’s fault if he does not benefit from the doctor’s prescription and not the doctor’s.

 Moreover, if a person knowing the time of his death does not stop sinning, then by knowing the time of his death will sin even more boldly. Therefore, in any case indeterminate time of death is better for humans than being certain of one’s age and life.

 Also, there are people who learn from the unknown death time and stop sinning, and do right deeds, help the poor from his property and livestock; therefore, it is not fair to prevent these people from advancing their spiritual esteem, for the sake of those who do not care about it.”

Sleeping and Dreaming

 “O Mofazzal, think upon dreams and how God has intermingled the false and truth in them; because if they were all true, everyone would be a prophet, and prophets would not have any merits over others, and if they were all false, there would be no benefits in them; therefore, some are true so people can use them to be guided or to be protected from certain injuries, and sometimes to stay false, so people would not totally trust them.

 Think about the means in this world prepared for humans’ benefit. Soil is used for building, metal for industry, wood for making ships and other things, stone for grinding, copper for dishes, silver and gold for trade, jewelry for saving money, seeds for eating, fruits for enjoying, meat for eating, good scents for pleasure, medicine for health, animals for carrying loads and riding, wood sticks for setting up fire, ash for making cement, pebble for covering the ground. How can these be counted?

 Tell me, if someone enters a house and sees storages full of things he needs, organized in places where they should be, does he think all these had been without a plan and a wise thinker? So how can it be accepted that this wide world, in which everything is designed based on human needs, does not have a wise creator and coordinator?

 O Mofazzal, think upon the things created for human needs; He created the seeds to be his food, and made him plough it to make bread with it; He created fur to be his cover, and taught him to spin it and make it into thread and wear it; He created tree for him and made him plant it, water it, and take care of it; He created medicinal herbs and made him collect them from specific places and mix them to make medicine; and other similar things.

 So notice God’s planning and see how He has taken responsibility of things that humans were unable to take care of, and assigned the rest which humans are capable of, their own responsibility. Because if God would do everything instead of humans, the idleness would direct humans towards corruption and decay and do things that would perish themselves. Haven’t you seen a guest that enters a house, and gets bored if the host does everything for him? Now if everything was done for him throughout his whole life and he did not have anything to do, how would he feel?

 Therefore, it is right to leave some of his needs to himself so the idleness would not bother him and get him involved in redundant affairs.

 O Mofazzal, know that human life has been based upon water and bread, so notice how God has planned these two items. Since humans’ need for water is more than bread, and they can tolerate hunger more easily than thirst, and uses water in more affairs than bread, like drinking, ablution, bathing, , washing clothes, watering animals and farms; therefore, God has made water predominant, so they wouldn’t need to buy it, and do not undergo any trouble to do so. But gaining bread needs hard work, so that idleness would not lead him to corruption or redundant affairs.

 Haven’t you seen that parents send their children to school (kindergarten) when they are not yet ready to study and learn, to prevent them from being mischievous and harming themselves or others. Likewise, if someone is jobless, he will trespass his limits and do things that are harmful for himself or others. You can see this in the life of those who are living in wealth and welfare and how they keep themselves busy.”

Differences in Appearance

 Mofazzal, learn that no two persons are the same, but wild animals, birds, etc. resemble each other. A herd of deer or a flock of Ptarmigan are so much similar that no difference can be detected. But humans differ in size and appearance, and you cannot find two totally similar persons, because humans need to detect each other to learn their characteristics and tricks. Don’t you see that similar animals and birds do not harm each other?

 If two persons are similar or twins, people will have difficulty detecting them. For example, if one was to be punished or to be rewarded, due to the similarity, the other one might have been taken by mistake. Sometimes this mistake happens when two people wear similar gowns; one might mistakenly use another person’s clothes due to its similarity to his own. So who else than God could be this kind to His creatures?

 If you see a portrait drawn on a wall and someone says, “Nobody has drawn this portrait and it does has created itself” you will not accept his word, and might even tease him. Then when you cannot accept this solid painting without a painter, how can you assume the live, speaking human as born randomly and without a creator?

 Think about animals’ bodies and why despite their constant eating, they do not grow bigger from a certain extent? The reason is that each is born for a certain reason, and based on a certain wisdom; therefore, if they grew bigger, those reasons would be contradicted and the animals would be mistaken and unrecognizable. For example, if it is not clear how much a cow, a sheep or a hen, etc. grows, the owners could not decide upon the space and location needed for keeping them.

 Why do humans get tired faster than animals, and too much walking or activity is hard for me? It is because people earn what they need with labor and work, things like clothes, a place to sleep, etc.; therefore, those things become costly and turn into businesses. And if humans never felt pain or fatigue, for what reason would he stop sinning? And how would he be obedient towards God and lenient towards people?

 Don’t you see how a person that has pain, prays to God, and confesses his shames, and asks God for health and starts giving alms and donations?

 If humans did not feel any pain after being hit, how could kings punish thieves and pirates? And how could they make the outlaws obedient?

 Aren’t these reasons enough for the son of ab-il-Oja and infidels like Mani, the painter, who blame pain in humans?

 If animals and humans were born either females or males, their generation could not continue; therefore, God has made both females and males, so they could increase their generation.

 Why is it that when man and woman mature, their pubic hairs grow, men grow beards, but women not? It is so because God has set men as protectors of women, and beard makes men look more gallant, and rigorous; while women do not have facial hair to be more beautiful and delicate. So notice how God has given each person what is to his benefit and there is no mistake in it.”

 Mofazzal says, “When Imam Sadeq reached here, the noon adhan started, and imam raised for noon prayer and said, “Go now and come back tomorrow if God wills”.

 I raised happily and returned home and thanked God for the knowledge that my master had taught me, and spent the night happily waiting for the next day’s blessing.

Chapter 2

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