Human Rights Treatise

(Explanatory note: the use of the male pronoun is due to the fact that in Arabic language and Grammar, when there is only one male person in a group of people, the pronoun which should be used is a male pronoun, but the opposite is not true; meaning, that when there is only one female in a group of people, again the male pronoun is used to accost them. Therefore, the use of male pronoun denotes that the audience are both female and male)

Imam Sajjad’s Human Rights Treatise

In the Name of God

The biggest of God’s rights upon you is to learn those rights He has defined for Himself and those are the major rights, and next, are those rights related to your own self, which God has made compulsory to preserve; the rights of your various organs from the top of the head to the tip of the toe.

So God has made it compulsory for you to take care of the rights of your eye, your ear, your tongue, your hands, your feet, your stomach, and your sex organs. These seven organs are the causes of your deeds and actions.

Then God Almighty has also obligated preserving the rights upon the actions you perform. He has set rights upon your prayers, your fasting, helping the poor, sacrificing, and all your deeds have rights.

After that (after things related to your own self), God has made the rights of those other than yourself compulsory upon you. They are certain people who have obligatory rights that you should preserve and the most important of those people, are those in authority (having a responsibility), those inferior to you and under your supervision, and your relatives.

And these are the rights, from which other rights originate.

And the rights of those in authority which God has made compulsory are three: The rights of the political leader, the rights of the scientific leader, and the rights of the property owner, and they are all called imam (meaning leader).

And the rights of your subordinates are three and are compulsory to you: Those on whom you have control and power (like employees, citizens of a city, etc.); those to whom you teach science, because a student is a subordinate to his instructor; and those whom you own (either through marriage or those you support).

And the rights of your relatives are numerous, depending on how close that person is to you. The most important of all is the right of your mother, then your father, then your child, then your siblings and then the rest of your relatives. The closer the relative to you, the stronger the rights are.

Then is the right of your master (and superior by position) who benefits you in some way, then is the right those inferior to you, whom you benefit.

Then is the right of those who have been kind to you in some way.

Then is the right of the person who calls for prayer (Mo’azen or the person who says Azan) and informs you about the time of your prayer (namaz). Then is the right of your leader in prayers.

Then is the right of your companion.

Then is the right of your neighbor, and then is your friend, and then is your partner, and then your property.

Then is the right of your debtor, and then is the right of your creditor.

Then is the person with whom you associate.

Then is the right of your opponent who has a claim over your, and then is the right of your opponent, on whom you have a claim.

Then is the right of those who consult you, and then is the right of those you consult with.

Then is the right of the person you have advised, and then the person who has advised you.

Then is the right of the person that is older than you, and then is the right of s/he who is younger than you.

Then is the right of the person who is asking you for something, and after that the right of the person from whom you are asking for something.

Then is the right of the person who has benefited you either through action or by narration, either positively or negatively; either intentionally or unintentionally.

Then is the right of the people of your creed in general. Then is the right of the non-Muslims not in war with you and under your protection (Ahli Zimmah).

Then are the rights that are established as the result of different causes.

Blessed are those whom God helps to preserve their rights. May God help him and aid him to fulfill his debts.

  1. The right of God:
  2. God’ right is the greatest of all rights. It is His right upon you, that you worship only Him, and not to make any other thing or person equal to Him.

    So when you preserved His right, He has obligated Himself to be the enough for your affairs in this world and in the Hereafter and to offer you what you like of them both.

  3. The right of the self:
  4. Your self’s right upon you is that you struggle as best as you can in the direction of worshipping God, and to preserve the rights of your tongue, your ear, your eye, your hand, your foot, your stomach, and your sex organs. May God help you with that.

  5. The right of the tongue:
  6. But the right of your tongue upon you is that you respect it by keeping it away from swear words, and to make it used to using a decent language. Oblige it to carry out words of politeness, and use it only in times needed, and for the benefit of its owner’s religion and world.

    Avoid speaking in a useless or foul language, which although seems harmless, but does not have much benefit (either), and wisdom does not approve of it. Because a wise person is beautified by his wisdom in his choice of nice words. And there is no power except God’s.

  7. The right of the ears:
  8. Your ear’s right upon you is to purify it by not letting it be a direct route to your heart, except for fine words that would let your heart be elevated, or those that would help you acquire a praiseworthy conduct and habit. Because indeed ears are the gates that let in words into your heart, and with them, the interpretations and intentions of those words, be those good or evil.

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  9. The right of the eyes:
  10. But your eyes’ right upon you is to keep them shut from those things that God has forbidden you to look at, and not to let it wander about upon everything, unless that thing is a means to gain experience, or would increase your insight or knowledge. Indeed, the eye is the gateway to experience.

  11. The right of the legs:
  12. And your feet’s right upon you is that you should not use them to walk towards what is forbidden to you, and do not walk with it in a route that ends in your own humiliation and condemnation. Because these feet are the ones responsible to take you and carry you in the path of religion and move you ahead.

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  13. The right of the hands:
  14. The right of your hand upon you is that you do not stretch it towards what is illegible to you, because you will be punished by God in the Hereafter for what you gained with it, and admonished by people in this world.

    And do not retain your hands from reaching that which God has made legal for you.

    So, dignify them by gaining the many things God has allowed you, and restrain them from gaining all those many things God has prohibited. As a result, if they are used wisely and with honor in this world, they would be rewarded in the Hereafter.

  15. The right of the stomach:
  16. The right that your stomach has upon you is not to make it a container for illegal things, be it a small portion or a large one. Even with regard to legal edibles, stay moderate, and do not exceed the level of gaining strength into filling out your belly with food, to the extent that you would become lethargic, and less dignified.

    Restrain it when it feels hungry or thirsty. Because overeating will result in laziness and fatigue, and will prevent you from hardworking and performing righteousness; and drinking too much liquid, will also result in becoming ignorant, and losing one’s courage and dignity.

  17. The right of the sex organs:
  18. And the right of your sex organs is to preserve it from what has been forbidden from it; and in order to help it towards that aim, preserve your eyes (from the forbidden), because that is the best help you can give. Also, remember death a lot and threaten yourself with God’s punishment, and ask God for His approval and for chastity, because there is no strength and power, but the Strength and Power of God.

  19. The right of prayers (salat or namaz):
  20. And about salat, know that it is arriving at the presence of God and (when you are praying and performing salat) you are standing with it in front of God. Therefore, when you learn this, it is most respectful that you stand in His presence like a humble, timid, distressed, hopeful, poor, beseeching person.

    Dignify Him with standing in His presence with stillness and the lowering of your head (and eyes to the ground) and humbleness of your limbs and yielding of your hands.

    Call Him (in prayer) in the best possible way, and request Him to free your heart from the sins (and their effects) that have besieged you and are destroying you, and there is no power but the power of God.

  21. The right of fasting:
  22. Know that fasting is a veil God has spread over your tongue, ear, eye, sex organs, and stomach to cover you away from the fire of Hell. This is the meaning of the narration (from Prophet Mohammad PBUH) that fasting is a shield against fire. So if your body stayed calm within this veil, be hopeful that you have been able to cover yourself (from fire in the Hereafter).

    But if you distorted this veil by agitating your body parts, or lifting its corners; thus, became prone to lustful things or matters that are beyond piety to God, then nothing would guarantee that the cover is fully torn apart and you would get out of its protection!

    And there is no power, but the power of God.

  23. The right of pilgrimage:
  24. And the right of pilgrimage is to know that through it you arrive at God’s presence, and escape from your sins into His Refuge. It is the acceptance of your repentance and the performing of an action, made obligatory by God.

  25. The right of alms:
  26. Now that alms (giving) is your deposit, saved with God. A saving that would not need any proof and testimony. And when you learn this, you would trust that your savings with God remain hidden rather than publicized. So it is most respectful that anything that you trust in God for safekeeping to remain hidden.

    Do not reveal your charity giving to the eyes and ears of the public, as if you trust them more to return back your good deeds, and do not trust God in doing so.

    Also never make those on whom you had mercy feel they were indebted to you, because your (charitable act of) alms giving had been performed for your own self. But if, you did make them feel indebted to you (by making it public or reminding them), there is no guarantee that you would not also be put in the same situation, because it (reminding people, and making them feel indebted) would mean that you did not have in mind (the spiritual betterment of) your own self when you were giving alms. Since if you did, then there would be no need to remind people of their indebtedness.

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  27. The right of offering (offering a gift to God to seek His pleasure):
  28. And the right of offering (anything) to God is that you intend the pleasure of God only, and long for His Mercy and Approval only; and not to demand a public show and being praised by the eyes of those observing. When you have such intention in mind, you will not be pretentious and extravagant anymore, because only God’s satisfaction has been considered.

    And know that God is always reached by plainness and ease and not hardship. Likewise, He wishes for His creatures ease and not hardship. Therefore, humbleness and humility is more favored by God than arrogance, because being costly is the characteristic of the arrogant. But humility and plainness are not extravagant and lavish, and have no costs, since they (humbleness and plainness) are part of the essence of the nature that God has created.

  29. The right of the competent authority in power:
  30. And as the person who has taken a ruling responsibility: Know that God has made you the means to test him, and he is dependent upon you because he is being tested by God by the authority he has been given. So it is upon you to advise him wholeheartedly, and not to dispute or quarrel with him, because if you do so, you have made yourself prone to being destroyed and him also.

    Be kind and humble when he offers you anything out of his satisfaction, so that he would not get disappointed in you and harm your religion; and for this, ask for God’s help always.

    Do not dispute him, and do not rebel him; and if you did so, you have disobeyed him, and hurt him, but you have indeed harmed yourself; and you have made him prone to problems, but have also made yourself prone to destruction. Then, it is possible to say that you have helped and have become a partner with him in what he would inflict upon you.

    And there is no power but the power of God.

  31. The right of the competent scientific leader:
  32. And the right of the person who has the responsibility of teaching you sciences, is to respect him and to increase attending meetings with him, and to listen to him fully, and being responsive (or attentive) to him*. And to help him in what you lack (in knowledge), by freeing up your mind for him, and increasing your concentration in his presence.

    Pure your heart for him (of any prejudices), and increase your insight by abandoning lustful pleasures.

    Beware that by teaching you, he has made you his messenger when confronting the ignorant, so you should act properly on his behalf, and should not betray him in transferring his message and defending it if necessary

    And there is no power but the power of God.

    * [in some sources it has been added here:] Do not raise your voice against his, and do not reply to others when they ask him questions and let him only be the one to reply. Do not talk with anyone else when he is teaching, and do not reprimand anyone in his presence. Defend him when you hear anyone backbiting him, and conceal his failures. Reveal / make manifest his good qualities. Do not befriend those who are his enemy, and do not be hostile towards his friends.

    If you behaved so, then God’s angels will be your witness that you had intended to learn his science and successfully did so for God’s sake only, rather than pretending to do so.

  33. The right of the competent owner (employer or whom you are paid for working for):
  34. And the right of he who is superior to you by his property is like the rights of the political leader, only that he possesses something that the ruler does not. Therefore, obey him in the small and big matters, except for those that would contradict God’s orders, or those rights of his which would contradict your rights and the rights of the people he is in contact with. So when you fulfilled in performing God’s and people’s rights, go back to him and listen to his orders.

  35. The right of the subjects to Power (citizens):
  36. And the rights of those subject to your ruling, is to know that* you have been made superior to them due to the excess of your power, and they have been made subject to you, due to their weakness and failing.

    And what is more grand than (caring for the condition of) those whose weakness and feebleness made them subject to you, and your judgements effective on them?

    If they do not contradict you, it is due to being less powerful; and if you oppress them, they will seek refuge in God for mercy, protection and dignity. So it is most important that you realize that what God has bestowed upon you of power and honor, has been out of His mercy, by which you have become superior. So stay thankful to Him, and whoever remains thankful to God, God will increase His bestowal.

    And there is no power but the power of God.

    * [in some sources it has been added here:] they have been made your subjects due to their weakness, and your power. Therefore, you should preserve justice among them, and be like a kind father to them, and forgive their ignorance, and not punish them. And to thank God for what you have been given out of His Power.

  37. The right of the subjects to Science (student):
  38. Your right upon those subject to you through science is to know that they are so, due to what God has bestowed upon you of knowledge and made you an authority that has access to His treasury of wisdom. And if you were successful in preserving the rights of what God has made you an authority in*, and were like a kind treasurer that advises his subjects; and a patient treasurer, who when recognizes a person in need of the treasure he owns, would willingly guide him towards it and hopefully believe in him, you have fulfilled your duty.

    Otherwise, you have betrayed the treasure, and have oppressed the rights of those in need of it, and an obstacle in the way to obtain it.

    * [in some sources it has been added here:] and if you were successful in teaching people, and did not betray them, and did not exhaust them, God will increase His bounties to you. But if you prevented people from benefiting your knowledge, or denied it from them, when they asked for it, it is upon God to take away your knowledge and its richness and to belittle you in the hearts of the people who know you.

  39. The right of the person under your care by marriage:
  40. The right of your subject through marriage, is to now that God has made her the cause of your calmness, tranquility, friendship, and a maintainer for you. Therefore, each one of you should thank God for his/her companion, and know that this had been God’s blessing to you. Therefore, it is compulsory that you favor the company of God’s blessing and to respect her, and to be her friend.

    Although, your responsibility over her is heavier*, she should also take heed of what you love, or hate, as long as it is not a sin. Therefore, upon her is also the right of mercy and companionship, and the fulfillment of a pleasure that God has put in your nature and that indeed is a great matter. And there is no power but the power of God.

    * [in some sources it has been added here:] and it is her right upon you that you be kind to her, because she is bound to be yours only. You should take care of her nourishment, and clothing; and if you failed, ask for her forgiveness.

  41. The right of those under your care due to property:
  42. And the right of your subject to you through property is to know that he is also one of God’s creatures (like yourself), and is of the same type of blood and flesh. You only possess him (for a specific period) and have not created him (you are not his God), or have not created his flesh and blood. His sustenance is not in your hands, but is upon God.

    But God placed him in your way, and trusted to put him under your care and entrusted him to you. Therefore, protect him, and travel with him in this journey, and share with him your own food, and clothing, and do not burden him with choirs that are beyond his power. And if you did not like him (for any reason), change him and do not torment God’s creature.

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  43. The right of the mother:
  44. And the right of your mother is to realize that she carried you in a way no one would carry anyone: she fed you with her heart, the way nobody feeds another one; and eagerly devoted her ears, eyes, hands, legs, skin, hair and all her body parts to protect you (and help you grow in her body). She tolerated all its abominations, pains, heaviness, and agonies; until the Mighty Hand of God helped your deliverance, and brought you into this world. She was content with feeding you fully while remaining hungry herself; clothing you, but remaining unclothed herself; by satiating your thirst, while remaining thirsty herself. She became your shade, while was in the sunshine herself; and endured all the difficulties, so that you could be raised in welfare; and remained awake so that you could sleep pleasantly.

    Her belly was your container; her bosom had been your abode. Her breasts satiated your thirst, and herself was your protection. She endured the heat and the cold for you and without you. So thank her for that, and you will be able to show your gratitude with God’s Help and Will.

  45. The right of father:
  46. And the right of your father is that he is your root and you are his branch, and if he did not exist, you would not also. So whenever you witness within yourself something you praise, know that your father had been the reason for it. So, thank God for that.

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  47. The right of the child:
  48. And the right of your child is that you realize he is from you and that he will be ascribed to you in this world either through good or bad fame. And that you are responsible for his upbringing, and to teach him ethics as best as possible and to help him know and worship his God. In this regard (how you bring up your child), you will be rewarded or questioned (punished). Therefore, raise (and educate) him in a way that you would be proud by his good effects, so that there would be no blame on you with regard to his upbringing.

    And there is on power but the Power of God.

  49. The right of brother:
  50. And the right of your brother is to know that he is like your hand which is extended, and the support you can lean on, and the honor you can trust, and the strength you can reach. So do not use him as a weapon to sin God, or as a means to violate God’s rights. Do not neglect helping him in affairs related to himself or against his enemies, and to help protect him against the devil forces (that might surround him).

    Advise him and associate with him for the sake of God. If he submitted himself to God and responded to Him, it is fine; otherwise, God should be more important to you than him (do not sin for his sake).

  51. The right of the benefactor (who has spent his money to free you of a debt):
  52. And the right of he who has done you a favor out of kindness and honesty, is to know that he has given away his money for you, to take you out of the darkness of misery and fear into dignity and freedom. He has made you free from captivity through being indebted, and unchained you from slavery (through debt). He made you smell the odor of honor, and released you from the prison of subjugation. He obviated the hardships that had inflicted you, and spoke fairly of you, and made living in this world pleasant for you, and made you your own master again. He solved the problem that had obsessed you, and relieved your worries so that you could devote yourself to praying God again, and made all these by spending out of his own property.

    Therefore, know that he is the most rightful person to you after your relatives, either in your life, or death; and he is the most rightful person deserving your help and assistance for the sake of God. Therefore, do not make yourself prior to him when he needs you.

  53. The right of the benefited:
  54. And the right of the person for whom you have done a favor is to know that God has made you his support, protector, helper and fortress. God made you a means between Himself and him. Therefore, by freeing him (of his problems), He (God) will cover you from the fire in the Hereafter, and it is a reward that you will receive in the future.

    And if he does not have any heir, you would inherit him in the future, as the result of the money you generously gave him, and defended his right by financially helping him. But if you did not stand for him and defend his right, his inheritance is not refined for you to take.

    And there is no power but the power of God.

  55. The right of one who has treated you kindly:
  56. The right of one who has treated you kindly is to be grateful to him, and to remember his kindness, and to spread nice words about him; and to pray wholeheartedly for him, when you are praying with your God, and if you did so, you have been grateful to him in secret and public.

    And then if it is possible, compensate for him in action, but if you did not find the chance, take care of him, until you can recompense.

  57. The right of the caller to prayer (Mo’azen):
  58. And the right of he who says azan and calls to prayer is to remember that he reminds you of your God, and invites you towards prosperity. He is your best assistant in performing the obligation, God has required you to perform (daily prayers).

    Therefore, be thankful to him, like one who is kind to you. And if you are bothered by it when you are at home, know that he is not blamed for it by God (therefore, you cannot blame him for it); but, without doubt, you should think of him as a blessing from God.

    Therefore, treat well God’s blessing by thanking God for such a blessing, no matter in what condition you are.

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  59. The right of Prayer Leader (Imam Jema’ah):
  60. And the right of the prayer leader is to know that he has taken the position of the ambassador between God and you and he is standing in the presence of God, and is talking on your behalf, but you are not talking on his behalf. He is supplicating on your behalf, but you are not supplicating for his. He is requesting God on your behalf, and you are not on his. He has taken the responsibility of confronting God and asking him for you, but you have not for him. And if he made a mistake or failed in any part of this he is responsible for it, and not you. And if he sinned, you are not his partner in sinning. He does not have any superiority over you. So he protected you with himself, and your prayers with his. Therefore, thank him for that.

    There is no power and will but the Power and Will of God.

  61. The right of the companion (the person you often talk to):
  62. The right of your companion is that you become lenient and affectionate towards him and be fair when talking (let him talk as well). Do not look down on him when you look at him, and talk in a way he understands when you talk to him.

    If you go to see him and sit with him, you have the choice to leave whenever you liked, but if he came to you, he is the one who has the choice of leaving you. So do not stand up without his permission. Forget his mistakes and remember his virtues.

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  63. The right of the neighbor:
  64. And the right of your neighbor is to protect him when he is absent, and to respect him when he is present, and to help and support him in both situations. Do not investigate his mistakes, and do not search to learn about any of his deficiencies. And if you learned about any of these against your own will, there is no fault with you, but be like a strong protector, and covering veil, so that even if those faults are searched for (by others), they could not be reached, and could not be used against him.

    Do not eavesdrop on him. Do not desert him at times of difficulty, and do not envy him, at times of welfare. Forgive his sin and shortcomings. Do not become impatient if he wrongs you, and do not stop supporting him. Repudiate any reprimands against him, and reveal the deception of those who give him false counsel. Keep your relationship with him an honorable one.

    And there is no power and strength against God’s.

  65. The right of your friend:
  66. And the right of your friend is that you keep your relationship as virtuous and fair as possible. Otherwise, do not recede from being fair and just to him. Respect him, the way he respects you, and support him, the same way he supports you, and outpace him in doing so, and if he did, be thankful and reward him for it.

    Do not deprive him of what he deserves in friendship. Oblige yourself to advice, take care of and help him in worshipping his God, and assist him with his own affairs, which do not contradict God’s orders. Therefore, be a mercy instead of a bother for him.

    And there is no power but the power of God.

  67. The right of partner:
  68. The right of your partner is that you support him in his absence, and to make yourself equal to him in his presence. Do not decide over something without his approval, and do not act based on your own decision without asking for his opinion. Protect his money for him. Avoid cheating either in grand matters or small ones. Indeed, we have been advised that “God’s hands is with partners, as long as they have not cheated.”

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  69. The right of property:
  70. The right of the property is that you should not obtain it unless from legitimate ways, and to give it in alms legitimately. Do not get distracted from the right path, and do not mislead it from its truthful aims. If it has been due to God’s bestowal upon you, do not spend it for causes and effects other than His.

    Do not share it with someone that would not be grateful to you for it.

    And do not leave it for an heir who would not make good use of his inheritance, and would not spend it in God’s way. If you do so, you would also be his accomplice. Or, what would happen to your property could be that he (your heir) would use it in God’s way. Then, he will take advantage of its profit (in this world and the Hereafter) and you will only be left with sin, regret, and sorrow.

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  71. The right of creditor:
  72. And the right of the person you are indebted to, is to pay him back if you are wealthy and avoid rejecting and delaying. Indeed, Prophet Mohammad PBUH said: “the delay of the wealthy (in paying his debt) is an oppression.”

    And if you are in need, satisfy him (to give you more time) with a fine language, and request him kindly and send him back gently. Do not impose on him the loss of his money as well as a harsh treatment because that is indeed abominable.

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  73. The right of your associate (one who mingles with you in an affair):
  74. The right of the person with whom you associate is that you should not mislead him, or cheat or lie to him or fool him.  Do not trick him or do anything against him, the way an enemy does when he abandons his friend. And if he trusted you, do your best for him; and beware that cheating a humble and good person is like usury.

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  75. The right of your accuser:
  76. The right of your accuser is that if what he claims is true, do not disagree with his proof or reject his request. But instead, you should become your own accuser, and judge and witness who would vote for him (in a court) that would need no other witnesses. And this is God’s right upon you.

    And if what he claims is not true, still be kind to him, and warn him (about God’s justice) and request him sincerely to abide by his religion, and break down his adversary against you by reminding him of God. Avoid using indecent language and shouting at him, which not only would not nullify his attacks against you, but also would make him return to you with more anger and sharpened knives of adversary. Because Profanity would only result in wickedness; while decent language eradicates wickedness.

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  77. The right of one you accused:
  78. But the right of the person you have accused is that if your claim is based on truth, adorn your claim with nice words, since he already has the burden of your accusation on him.

    Provide to him your evidence leniently and give him time, and clarify the matter, and be merciful. Do not turn your claim into a controversial dispute, because you will use the credibility of your proofs, and it (your claim) could not be understood.

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  79. The right of one who consults with you:
  80. The right of the person who consults with you is that when he asks you for an opinion, try your best to advise him wholeheartedly, and to use all your knowledge in doing so, as if you were in his place, and would do the same. And this should be performed in a merciful and kind way, because kindness will eliminate fear, but harshness will eliminate friendliness.

    And if you do not possess any opinions in the matter, but know someone who does and whose opinion you trust, guide him to that person. And it is upon you to not deprive him of anything of benefit to him, and do not delay in advising him.

    And there is no power and strength other than the Power and Strength of God.

  81. The right of one you consult with:
  82. His right upon you is that you should not suspect his honesty (and accuse him of dishonesty) if you do not agree with him on the matter you are consulting him with. Because indeed they are only different viewpoints, which different people possess. If you find his opinion dishonest, it is up to you to still ask for his consult; but if you have found him worthy of consulting, then this does not give you the permission to accuse him of dishonesty.

    Do not cease thanking him about what he has provided you of his opinion and good advice. If it was in accord with your own decision, thank God and accept it gratefully from your brother and try to treat him likewise, if he one day asked for your consult.

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  83. The right of the advisee:
  84. And the right of the person consulting with you is to advise him wholeheartedly on the rights that you see he possesses, and talk in a language that is pleasant to his ears.

    Talk in a way that he would be able to understand you; indeed different minds have different levels of comprehension by which they are able or unable to understand things. But your religion is the religion of mercy.

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  85. The right of the advisor:
  86. The right of he who advises you is to receive him kindly, and make your heart crave for his advice, and open your ears for him, so that you would understand what he would tell you.

    Then look upon what he says, if it is in accord with your improvement, thank God for it, and accept it from him, and understand his advice.

    But if it was not in accord, still be kind to him, and do not accuse him of anything.

    So if his advice was useless to you, and he had made a mistake in his advice or that he deserved your accusations (had given false advice intentionally), simply do not listen to his advice.

    And there is no power but the power of God.

  87. The right of the elders:
  88. The right of an elderly, is to respect him for his seniority and then for his precedence in Islam, if he is one of the righteous Muslims. Therefore, respect him, and do not dispute with him in front of the adversaries. Do not outpace him in walking, and do not walk ahead of him, and do not make a fool of him.

    And if he treated you foolishly, be patient, and respect him for the sake of his precedence in Islam as well as his seniority. Indeed, the more his precedence in Islam is, the more right he has upon you.

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  89. The right of the youngsters:
  90. And the right of the person younger than you is to be kind to him, and to teach him and make him a skilled person. Be forgiving towards him, and conceal his deeds.  Befriend him and help him and conceal his wrongdoings in his adolescence, because this will ultimately make him sorrowful. So be patient with him, and avoid resisting him, because this will lead in his becoming mature.

  91. The right of one who seeks your help:
  92. The right of the person that seeks your help, if you were certain of his honesty, is to provide him with what he needs and to fulfill his needs if you are capable of it. Pray for him to find relief from the calamity he has been stricken with, and help him with his request.

    But if you doubted his honesty and there had been accusations against him, but which you were not certain of, those false rumors might have been Satan’s plot to prevent you from being blessed and it might be Satan trying to stand between you and your God. Therefore, leave the matter concealed and reply the person’s request for help as best as you can.

    And if you could overcome your (doubting) self, and could help him in spite of what you were thinking about him, then that is one of the boldest affairs one can perform.

  93. The right of one whose help you seek:
  94. And the right of the person whose help you seek is to accept from him, whatever he offers you and to thank him for that, so realize the depth of his kindness.

    And if he declined to help you, understand his reasons for doing so, and be optimistic towards him. Realize that if he withheld offering his property, you should not reprimand him for that, because it is his property.

    But if he mistreated you, indeed humans are oppressive and ungrateful.

  95. The right of one who has made you happy:
  96. And the right of he whom God has made a medium to make you happy, if he made you happy intentionally; first thank God for him, and then be grateful to him accordingly, and recompense for him since he took precedence in doing so (making you happy), and be sure to reward him.

    But if what he did to make you happy was done unintentionally, thank God and be grateful to Him and realize that it had been God’s blessing upon you, that He chose you selectively for this blessing which you liked. But since the person who made you happy had been God’s medium in doing so, and this in itself is a blessing, even if they do not intend it, wish the person (and pray for) all the blessings.

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  97. The right of one who has harmed you:
  98. The right of the person who has harmed you either by his action or words, if it is done intentionally, is to forgive him in the first place; because, forgiving him and the likes of him by you, is more appropriate than condemnation.

    Indeed God Almighty says (in Quran, Chapter Shora, verses 41 – 43): “And he who seeks for help (to take back his right) after he is being oppressed, there is no blame on him. But the blame is on those who oppress people and remain steadfast in the world (in their oppression) without any right to do so. For them is a painful punishment.  But those who remain patient and forgive, indeed that is one of the greatest of affairs.”

    And God also says (in Chapter Nahl, verse 126): “If you wanted to take revenge, take revenge only as much as you have been oppressed, and if instead you remained patient, indeed that is better for the patient.”

    These were the rights of a person that harmed you intentionally. But if he did unintentionally, do not oppress him by intentionally seeking revenge; because if you did so, you have intentionally replied to an unintentional mistake. Therefore, befriend him and treat him with kindness as best as you can.

    And there is no power but the Power of God.

  99. The right of the people of your creed:
  100. The right of the people of your creed is to take care of them, and spread for them your arms of kindness, and treat their wrongdoers with kindness, and befriend them and seek their welfare, and thank those righteous among them, who have been treating virtuously either you or themselves. Because indeed even if they had only been treating themselves finely, this would mean they have also treated you well, because it would mean they have been capable of supporting themselves, and have not burdened their welfare upon you.

    So pray for them altogether, and provide them all your assistance, and associate them all with yourself. Consider the elderly as your father, the young ones, as your child, and the middle-aged ones as your brother.

    Treat with mercy and compassion anyone of them who refers to you, and treat your brothers as a brother deserves to be treated.

  101. The right of non-Muslims under the protection of Muslims:
  102. The right of the non-Muslims not in war with Muslims (living in Muslim countries; therefore, under the protection of Islam) is that you should accept from them what God has accepted; and to keep your promises upon (leaving them to perform) what God had made them compulsory to perform under His Protection and Responsibility. Leave them alone with what is obligatory for them.

    If there is a dispute between you in business, judge based on God’s judgement as if you yourself are being judged. Take care of their condition and avoid oppressing them by setting a barrier between yourself and them, and treat them based on Prophet Mohammad’s tradition. Indeed he (Prophet Mohammad) said: “anybody who mistreats a person, who is under the protection of Islam, I am his enemy.”

    Therefore, preserve piety.

    And there is no power and strength other than the power and strength of God.

    And these are 50 of the obligatory rights that you cannot neglect at any circumstances. It is compulsory that you preserve them and act based on them, and ask for God’s help, grand be His praise, in doing so.

    And there is no power and strength other than the power and strength of God.

    Thanks be to the God of the worlds.


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